Article 4318

Title of the article



Koznova Irina Evgen'evna, Doctor of historical sciences, leading researcher, Department of Philosophy of Culture, the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences (building 1, 12 Goncharnaya street, Moscow, Russia), E-mail: 

Index UDK





Background. The formation of a new concept of a collective whole, with the historical memory being an integral part, was one of the central tasks of the Bolshevik leadership from the moment of its coming to power. It was especially important to teach the peasantry, which formed the majority of the population in 1920s, how to speak and think the Soviet way. The authorities sought to connect the peasant masses to create an image of the revolution. The article investigates the peasant memory of the agrarian movement of 1917, shows the process of forming a retrospective view of revolutionary events and presents the experience of actualization of the recent past, a projection of the “current” (from the point of view of 1920s) situation on it.
Materials and methods. The main source is the published and unpublished memories of the Selkor, written for the Peasant Newspaper. The study of the Selkor memorial complex is built in the mainstream of socio-historical anthropology, which
makes it possible to present images of the past and the experiences of people.
Results. Such an approach can contribute, firstly, to a further study of the features of the perception of social reality by the peasantry, secondly, to an understanding of the nature of the process of erosion of the peasant mentality type, and, thirdly, to supplement the panorama of the agrarian revolution presented in studies in its psychomantic dimension.
Conclusions. Although the memories of the Selkor were intended to demonstrate the leading role of the Bolsheviks in the agrarian revolution and the conscious Bolshevisation of the peasantry, they did not fit into the social order. The main actor of memory was the communal peasantry itself. Through self-organization, the “world” sought to oust urban culture and its carriers from rural areas and establish its own peasant order. This memory was based on the self-consciousness of the peasantry, growing in the 1920s, and its demands for participation in power. 

Key words

peasantry, community, revolution, power, city, memory, past 


 Download PDF


1. Nora P. Pamyat' o voyne 60 let spustya: Rossiya, Germaniya, Evropa [Memory about the war 60 years after: Russia, Germany, Europe]. Moscow: Novoe literaturnoe obozrenie, 2005, 780 p.
2. Repina L. P. Odissey. Chelovek v istorii. 1996 [Odysseus. The man in history. 1996]. Moscow, 1996, pp. 25–38.
3. Leont'eva O. B. Dialog so vremenem: Al'manakh intellektual'noy istorii [A dialogue with time: Almanac of intellectual history]. 2015, iss. 50, pp. 59–93.
4. Kabanov V. V. Arkheograficheskiy ezhegodnik za 1984 god [Archeographic yearbook of 1984]. Moscow, 1986, pp. 182–187.
5. Lozbenev I. N. Rossiyskaya istoriya [Russian history]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 81–86.
6. Voyna krest'yan s pomeshchikami v 1917 g. Vospominaniya krest'yan [The war peasants with landowners in 1917. Memories of peasants]. Ed. by Ya. A. Yakovlev. Moscow: Krest'yanskaya gazeta, 1926, 79 p.
7. Revolyutsiya v derevne v 1917 g. Vospominaniya krest'yan [The revolution in the village in 1917. Memories of peasants]. Ed. by Ya. A. Yakovlev. Moscow: Krest'yanskaya gazeta, 1927, 41 p.
8. 1917 god v derevne. Vospominaniya krest'yan [1917 in the village. Memories of peasants]. Comp. by I. V. Igritskiy. Moscow: GIZ, 1929, 360 p.
9. 1917 god v derevne (Vospominaniya krest'yan) [1917 in the village (Memories of peasants)]. Comp. by I. V. Igritskiy. Moscow: Politizdat, 1967, 288 p.
10. Kabanov V. Novyy mir [New world]. 1967, no. 10, pp. 265–267.
11. Velikanova O. V. Razocharovannye mechtateli: Sovetskoe obshchestvo 1920-kh gg. [Disappointed dreamers: the Soviet society of 1920s]. Moscow: Politicheskaya entsiklopediya, 2017, 295 p.
12. Buldakov V. P. Krasnaya smuta. Priroda i posledstviya revolyutsionnogo nasiliya [The red revolt. The nature and aftermath of the revolutionary violence]. 2nd ed., suppl. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2010, 967 p.
13. Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv ekonomiki (RGAE) [Russian State Archive of Economics (RGAE)]. F. 396. Op. 3. D. 765. L. 1–10 ob.
14. Rossiyskiy gosudarstvennyy arkhiv sotsial'no-politicheskoy istorii (RGASPI) [Russian State Archive of Sociopolitical History (RGASPI)]. F. 17. Op. 85. D. 281. L. 125.
15. Pyatnadtsatyy s"ezd VKP(b). Stenograficheskiy otchet: v 2 t. [XV Congress of the AUCPB. Verbatim record: in 2 volumes]. Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1962, vol. II, pp. 849–1722.
16. Tragediya sovetskoy derevni. Kollektivizatsiya i raskulachivanie. 1927–1939. Dokumenty i materialy: v 5 t. T. 1. May 1927 – noyabr' 1929 [The tragedy of the Soviet village. Collectivization and dispossession of the kulaks. 1927–1939. Documents and materials: in 5 volumes. Vol. 1. May 1927 – November 1929]. Eds. V. Danilov, R. Manning, L. Violy. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 1999, 880 p.
17. Lyukshin D. I. Vtoraya russkaya smuta: krest'yanskoe izmerenie [The second Russian revolt: peasant dimension]. Moscow: AIRO-XX, 2006, 133 p.
18. Sukhova O. A. Desyat' mifov krest'yanskogo soznaniya: Ocherki istorii sotsial'noy psikhologii i mentaliteta russkogo krest'yanstva (konets XIX – nachalo XX v.) po materialam Srednego Povolzh'ya [10 myths on the peasant consciousness: Essays on the history
of Russian peasantry’s social psychology and mentality (late XIX – early XX centuries) by the materials of the Middle Volga region]. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 2008, 677 p. 


Дата создания: 01.03.2019 10:06
Дата обновления: 01.03.2019 10:28